B.sc Ag 5th Semester Agriculture Syllabus 2023-24

In this post, b.sc ag 5th semester agriculture syllabus is given for 2023-24. 

The purpose of this syllabus is to guide those students who have just taken admission in the fifth semester. 

Due to the unavailability of a syllabus and correct information about the topics, they have to pause their studies for a while. 

This is a waste of their time. 

Therefore this syllabus is being presented as a common syllabus. 

So that till the new BSc ag 5th sem syllabus comes, they can know which topics they have to cover in this semester and what to read for advance preparation for the exam. 

So, you can get the information about the agriculture syllabus in detail here. 

If the new syllabus has been issued by your university, then follow it and prepare your notes based on the topics given in it. 

Here the main objective of giving B.Sc Agriculture syllabus semester wise is to provide you convenience. 

Some topics may be different in the syllabus of all universities and they may also mismatch with the syllabus given here. 

But generally, these topics are taught in the fifth semester. 

The syllabus given here has been prepared based on the syllabus issued by a university and efforts have been made to ensure that no topic is left out. 

Topics of elective courses have also been included in this syllabus, which will prove beneficial for many students. 

Here the syllabus has been prepared by combining both theory and practical, so that you can clear all the doubts in one place. 

Let's use this syllabus.


B.sc Agriculture 5th Semester Syllabus

B.sc Ag Fifth Sem Syllabus Of Rainfed And Dryland Agriculture

Theory 

  • Rainfed and dryland agriculture - Introduction, types and history. Problems & prospects of rainfed agriculture in India. Soil and climatic conditions are prevalent in rainfed areas. Drought: types, effect of water deficit on physio - morphological characteristics of the plants. Mechanism of crop adoption under moisture deficit conditions. Efficient water utilization through soil and crop management practices, and management of crops in rainfed areas. Contingent crop planning for aberrant weather conditions. Precision agriculture; concepts and techniques; their issues and concerns for Indian agriculture.

Practical 

  • Studies on climatic classifications and rainfall patterns are the country's rainfed areas. Studies on cropping patterns of different dryland areas in the country and demarcation of dryland areas on the map of India. Interpretation of metrological data and scheduling of supplemental irrigations based on evapotranspiration demand of crops effective rainfall and its calculations. Visit rainfed research stations/watersheds.


B.sc Ag 5th Sem Crop Improvement 1 Kharif Crops Syllabus

Theory 

  • Centers of origin, distribution of species, wild relatives in different cereals (Rice, Maize, Sorghum and Pearl millet); pulses (Pigeonpea, Urdbean and Mungbean); oilseeds (Groundnut); fiber (Cotton). Important concepts of breeding self-pollinated and cross-pollinated. Major breeding objectives and procedures including conventional and modern innovative approaches for the development of hybrids and varieties for yield, adaptability, stability, abiotic and biotic stress and quality (physical, chemical, nutritional); Hybrid seed production technology in Maize, Rice, Sorghum, Pearl millet and pigeonpea.

Practical 

  • Floral biology, emasculation and hybridization techniques in different crop species; viz., Rice, Maize, Sorghum, Pearl millet, Pigeonpea, Urdbean, Mungbean, Groundnut, and Cotton crops. Maintenance breeding of different Kharif crops. Handling of germplasm and segregating populations by different methods like pedigree, bulk and single seed decent methods; Study of field techniques for seed production and hybrid seeds production in Kharif crops; Estimation of heterosis, inbreeding depression and heritability; Layout of field experiments; Study of quality characters, donor parents for different characters; Visit to seed production plots; Visit to AICRP plots of different field crops.


B.sc Ag 5th Sem Syllabus Pests Of Field Crops Stored Grains And Their Management

Theory 

  • General account of nature and type of damage by following insect pests arthropods pests. The scientific name, order, family, host range, distribution, biology and bionomics, nature of the damage, and management of major pests and scientific name, order, family, host range, distribution, nature of damage and control practice other important arthropod pests (mites) of various field crops. Factors affecting losses of stored grain and role of physical, biological, mechanical and chemical factors in deterioration of grain. Insect pests, mites, rodents, birds and microorganisms associated with stored grain and their management. Storage structure and methods of grain storage and fundamental principles of grain store management.
  • Paddy: Leptocorisa varicronis, Hieroglyphus Spp., Nilaparvata lugens, Nephotetix, spp., Mythimna separate. 
  • Jowar Maize: Chilo partellus, Atherigona variasoccata, Scirpophaga excerpatalis, Chilo infuscatelles 
  • Sugarcane: Top borer, Pyrilla, Early Shoot borer and white fly. 
  • Cotton: Pectinophora gossypiella, Earias Spp., Sylepta derogata, Dysdercus Spp., Bemisia tabaci, Amrasca bigutulla. 
  • Oilseeds: Lipaphis erysimi, Athalia proxima Bagrada Cruciferarun, Dasyneura lini. 
  • Pulses: Helicoverpa armigera Agrotis Spp., Etiella zinckenella 
  • Pests of Stored Grains: Sitophilus oryzae, Trogoderma granarium, Sitotroga cerealella, Callosobruchus chinensis. 
  • Polyphagous pests: Odontotermes obesus, Holotrichia consanguinea, Spilosoma obliqua, Spodoptera litura, Amsacta Spp.

Practical 

  • Identification of different types of damage. Identification and study of the life cycle and seasonal history of various insect pests attacking field crops and their produce. Identification of insect pests and Mites associated with stored grain. Determination of insect infestation by different methods. Assessment of losses due to insects. Calculations on the doses of insecticides application technique. Fumigation of grain store/godown. Identification of rodents and rodent control operations in godowns. Identification of birds and bird control operations in godowns. Determination of moisture content of grain. Methods of grain sampling under storage conditions. Visit Indian Storage Management and Research Institute, Hapur and Quality Laboratory, Department of Food., Delhi. Visit to nearest FCI godowns.


B.sc Ag 5th Sem Syllabus Ag Marketing Trade And Prices

Theory 

  • Agricultural Marketing: Concepts and definitions of market, marketing, agricultural marketing, market structure, marketing mix and market segmentation, classification and characteristics of agricultural markets; demand, supply and producer's surplus of agricommodities: nature and determinants of demand and supply of farm products, producer's surplus - meaning and its types, marketable and marketed surplus, factors affecting marketable surplus of agri- commodities; cost based and competition based pricing; market promotion - advertising, personal selling, sales promotion and publicity - their meaning and merits & demerits; marketing process and functions: Marketing process-concentration, dispersion and equalization; exchange functions - buying and selling; physical functions - storage, transport and processing; facilitating functions - packaging, branding, grading, quality control and labeling (Agmark); Market functionaries and marketing channels: Types and importance of agencies involved in agricultural marketing; meaning and definition of marketing channel; number of channel levels; marketing channels for different farm products; Integration, efficiency, costs and price spread: Meaning, definition and types of market integration; marketing efficiency; marketing costs, margins and price spread; factors affecting cost of marketing; reasons for higher marketing costs of farm commodities; ways of reducing marketing costs; Role of Govt, in agricultural marketing: Public sector institutions- CWC, SWC, FCI, CACP & DMI - their objectives and functions; cooperative marketing in India; Risk in marketing: Types of risk in marketing; speculation & hedging; an overview of futures trading; Agricultural prices and policy: Meaning and functions of price; administered prices; need for agricultural price policy; Trade: Concept of International Trade and its need, theories of absolute and comparative advantage. Present status and prospects of international trade in agri-commodities; GATT and WTO; Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) and its implications on Indian agriculture; IPR GST.

Practical 

  • Plotting and study of demand and supply curves and calculation of elasticities; Study of relationship between market arrivals and prices of some selected commodities; Computation of marketable and marketed surplus of important commodities; Study of price behavior over time for some selected commodities; Construction of index numbers; Visit to a local market to study various marketing functions performed by different agencies, identification of marketing channels for selected commodity, collection of data regarding marketing costs, margins and price spread and presentation of the report in the class; Visit to market institutions - NAFED, SWC, - CWC, cooperative marketing society, etc. to study their organization and functioning; Application of principles of comparative advantage of international trade.


B.sc Ag 5th Sem Syllabus Protected Cultivation And Secondary Agriculture

Theory 

  • Greenhouse technology: Introduction, Types of Green-Houses; Plant response to Greenhouse environment, Planning and design of greenhouses, Design criteria of greenhouse for cooling and heating purposes. Green-house equipment, and materials of construction for traditional and low-cost greenhouses. Irrigation systems used in greenhouses, typical applications, passive solar greenhouses, hot air greenhouse heating systems, and greenhouse drying. Important Engineering properties such as physical, thermal and aero & hydrodynamic properties of cereals, pulses and oilseed, and their application in PHT equipment design and operation. Drying and dehydration; moisture measurement, EMC, drying theory, various drying methods, commercial grain dryer (deep bed dryer, flatbed dryer, tray dryer, fluidized bed dryer, recirculatory dryer and solar dryer). Material handling equipment; conveyors and elevators, their principle, working and selection.

Practical 

  • Study of different types of greenhouses based on shape. Determine the rate of air exchange in an active summer-winter cooling system. Determination of the drying rate of agricultural products inside the greenhouse. Study of greenhouse equipment. Visit various Post Harvest Laboratories. Determination of Moisture content of various grains by oven drying & infrared moisture methods. Determination of engineering properties (shape and size, bulk density and porosity of biomaterials). Determination of Moisture content of various grains by moisture meter. Field visit to the seed processing plant.


B.sc Ag 5th Sem Syllabus Of Diseases Of Field And Horticultural Crops & their Management–I

Theory 

  • Symptoms, etiology, disease cycle and management of major diseases of the following crops: Field Crops: Rice: Blast, Brown spot, Bacterial Blight, Sheath blight, false smut, Khaira and tungro; Maize: stalk rots, downy mildew; Sorghum: smuts; Bajra: downy mildew and ergot; Groundnut: early and leaf spots; Pigeonpea: Phytophthora blight, wilt and sterility mosaic; Green gram: Cercospora leaf spot, web blight and yellow mosaic; Tobacco: Mosaic. Horticultural Crops: Guava: wilt and anthracnose; Banana: Panama wilt, Sigatoka and bunchy top; Papaya: foot rot and leaf curl. Cruciferous vegetable: Alternaria leaf spot and black rot; Brinjal: phomopsis blight, sclerotinia and little leaf; Tomato: early and late blight, leaf curl and mosaic; Okra: Yellow Vein Mosaic; Beans: Anthracnose and bacterial blight; ginger: soft rot; Colocasia: Phytophthora blight. 

Practical 

  • Identification and histopathological studies of selected diseases of field and horticultural crops covered in theory. Field visits for the diagnosis of field problems. Collection and preservation of plant-diseased specimens for herbarium Note: Students should submit 10 pressed and well-mounted specimens.


B.sc Ag 5th Sem Syllabus On Fruit And Plantation

(Production Technology for Fruit and Plantation Crops)

Theory 

  • Importance and scope of fruit and plantation crop industry in India; High-density planting; Use of rootstocks; Production technologies for the cultivation of major fruits mango, banana, citrus, grape, guava, Litchi, papaya, apple, pear, peach and; minor fruits-pineapple, pomegranate, jackfruit, strawberry, nut crops; plantation crops-coconut, areca nut, cashew, tea, coffee & rubber.

Practical 

  • Seed propagation. Scarification and stratification of seeds. Propagation methods for fruit and plantation crops. Including micro-propagation. Description and identification of fruit. Preparation of plant bioregulators and their uses, pests, diseases and physiological disorders of the above fruit and plantation crops, Visit commercial orchards.


B.sc Ag 5th Sem Syllabus On Communication Skills And Personality Development

Theory 

  • Communication: meaning and definition; Principles and process of communication, models and barriers to communication; Verbal and nonverbal communication. Communication Skills: Listening and note taking, writing skills, oral presentation skills; field diary and lab record; indexing, footnote and bibliographic procedures. Reading and comprehension of general and technical articles, precise writing, summarizing, abstracting; individual and group presentations, impromptu presentation, public speaking; and Group discussion. Organizing seminars and conferences. Diffusion and adoption of innovation: concept and meaning, process and stages of adoption, adopter categories.

Practical 

  • Listening and note taking, writing skills, oral presentation skills; field diary and lab record; indexing, footnote and bibliographic procedures. Reading and comprehension of general and technical articles, precise writing, summarizing, abstracting; individual and group presentations.


B.sc Ag 5th Sem Syllabus Of Intellectual Property Rights

Theory 

  • Introduction and meaning of intellectual property, brief introduction to GATT, WTO, TRIPs and WIPO, Treaties for IPR protection; Types of Intellectual Property and legislations covering IPR in India: - Patents, Copyrights, Trademark, Industrial design, Geographical indications, Integrated circuits, Trade secrets. Patents Act 1970 and Patent system in India, patentability, process and product patent, filing of patent, patent specification, patent claims, Patent opposition and revocation, infringement, Compulsory licensing, Patent Cooperation Treaty, Patent search and patent database. Origin and history including a brief introduction to UPOV for protection of plant varieties, Protection of plant varieties under UPOV and PPV&FR Act of India, Plant breeder's rights, Registration of plant varieties under PPV&FR Act 2001, breeders, researcher and farmers rights. International treaty on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (ITPGRFA).


B.sc Ag 5th Sem Syllabus Principles Of Food Science And Nutrition

UNIT 1. 

  • General: Definition of food and food science, Composition of food, Foods of animal origin, Digestive system of Ruminants. 

UNIT 2. 

  • Definition, Chemistry and Function of Carbohydrate, Fat, Proteins and Water. 

UNIT 3. 

  • Requirement, Availability, Functions and Nutritional deficiency disease of minerals and vitamins. Flavors and colors used in food. 

UNIT 4. 

  • Food microbiology with special reference to milk, Physico Chemical properties of milk. 

UNIT 5. 

  • Composition and processing of egg, meat and chicken, feed additives, antibiotics, enzymes and hormones.

Practical 

  • Sampling of milk, Specific gravity of milk by lactometer, Water quality test, Study of Nutritional deficient conditions, Study of Nutritional disorders, Quality parameters for egg, meat and chicken, Fat test by Gerbers method, T.S. & S.N.F. percentage by Richmond's scale and formula.


B.sc Ag 5th Sem Syllabus On Geo Informatics And Nanotech

Theory 

  • Geo-informatics- definition, concepts, tools and techniques; their use in Precision Agriculture. Crop discrimination and Yield monitoring, soil mapping; fertilizer recommendation using geospatial technologies; Spatial data and their management in GIS; Remote sensing concepts and application in agriculture; Image processing and interpretation; Global positioning system (GPS), components and its functions; Nanotechnology, definition, concepts and techniques, brief introduction about nanoscale effects, nano-particles, nano-pesticides, nano-fertilizers, nano- sensors, Use of nanotechnology in seed, water, fertilizer, plant protection for scaling-up farm productivity.

Practical 

  • Introduction to GIS software, Introduction to image processing software. Visual interpretation of remote sensing images. Generation of spectral profiles of different objects. Supervised and unsupervised classification and acreage estimation, Multispectral remote sensing for soil mapping. Creation of thematic layers of soil fertility based on GIS. Creation of productivity and management zones. Fertilizer recommendations based on VRT and STCR techniques. Crop stress (biotic/abiotic) monitoring using geospatial technology. Use of GPS for agricultural survey. Formulation, characterization and applications of nanoparticles in agriculture. Projects formulation and execution related to precision farming.


B.sc Ag 5th Sem Syllabus On Agribusiness Management

Theory 

  • Transformation of agriculture into agribusiness, various stakeholders and components of agribusiness systems. Importance of agribusiness in the Indian economy and New Agricultural Policy. Distinctive features of Agribusiness Management: Importance and needs of agro-based industries, Classification of industries and types of agro-based industries. The institutional arrangement, and procedures to set up agro-based industries. Constraints in establishing agro-based industries. Agri-value chain: Understanding primary and support activities and their linkages. Business environment: PEST & SWOT analysis. Management functions Roles & activities, Organization culture. Planning, meaning, definition, types of plans. Purpose or mission, goals or objectives, Strategies, policies procedures, rules, programs and budget. Components of a business plan, Steps in planning and implementation. Organization staffing, directing and motivation. Ordering, leading, supervision, communications, control. Capital Management and Financial Management of Agribusiness. Financial statements and their importance. Marketing Management: Segmentation, targeting & positioning. Marketing mix and marketing strategies. Consumer behavior analysis, Product Life Cycle (PLC). Sales & Distribution Management. Pricing policy, various pricing methods. Project Management definition, project cycle, identification, formulation, appraisal, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Project Appraisal and evaluation techniques.

Practical 

  • Study of agri-input markets: Seed, fertilizers, pesticides. Study of output markets: grains, fruits, vegetables, flowers. Study of product markets, retail trade commodity trading, and value-added products. Study of financing institutions- Cooperative, Commercial banks, RRBs, Agribusiness Finance Limited, NABARD. Preparations of projects and Feasibility reports for agribusiness entrepreneurs. Appraisal/evaluation techniques of identifying viable project- Non-discounting techniques. Case study of agro-based industries. Trend and growth rate of prices of agricultural commodities. Net present worth technique for selection of viable project. Internal rate of return.


B.sc Ag 5th Sem Syllabus On Agro Chemicals

Theory 

  • An introduction to agrochemicals, their type and role in agriculture, effect on environment, soil, human and animal health, merits and demerits of their uses in agriculture, and management of agrochemicals for sustainable agriculture. Herbicides-Major classes, properties and important herbicides. Fate of herbicides. Fungicides - Classification - Inorganic fungicides - characteristics, preparation and use of sulfur and copper, Mode of action- Bordeaux mixture and copper oxychloride. Organic fungicides- Mode of action- Dithiocarbamates characteristics, preparation and use of Zineb and maneb. Systemic fungicides- Benomyl, carboxin, oxycarboxin, Metalaxyl, Carbendazim, characteristics and use. Introduction and classification of insecticides: inorganic and organic insecticides Organochlorine, Organophosphates, Carbamates, Synthetic pyrethroids Neonicotinoids, Biorationals, Insecticide Act and rules, Insecticides banned, withdrawn and restricted use, Fate of insecticides in soil & plant. IGRs Biopesticides, Reduced risk insecticides, Botanicals, plant and animal systemic insecticides their characteristics and uses. Fertilizers and their importance. Nitrogenous fertilizers: Feedstocks and Manufacturing of ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium chloride, and urea. Slow-release N fertilizers. Phosphatic fertilizers: feedstock and manufacturing of single superphosphate. Preparation of bone meal and basic slag. Potassic fertilizers: Natural sources of potash, manufacturing of potassium chloride, potassium sulphate and potassium nitrate. Mixed and complex fertilizers: Sources and compatibility-preparation of major, secondary and micronutrient mixtures. Complex fertilizers: Manufacturing of ammonium phosphates, nitro-phosphates and NPK complexes. Fertilizer control order. Fertilizer logistics and marketing. Plant bio-pesticides for ecological agriculture, Bio-insect repellent.

Practical 

  • Sampling of fertilizers and pesticides. Pesticides application technology to study various pesticide appliances. Quick tests for identification of common fertilizers. Identification of anion and cation in fertilizer. Calculation of doses of insecticides to be used. To study and identify various formulations of insecticide available kin market Estimation of nitrogen in Urea. Estimation of water-soluble P2O5 and citrate soluble P2O5 in single super phosphate. Estimation of potassium in-Muraite of Potash/ Sulphate of Potash by flame photometer. Determination of copper content in copper oxychloride. Determination of sulfur content in sulphur fungicide. Determination of thiram. Determination of ziram content.


B.sc Ag 5th Sem Syllabus On Plant Breeding

(Commercial Plant Breeding Questions)

Theory 

  • Types of crops and modes of plant reproduction. Line development and maintenance breeding in self and cross-pollinated crops (A/B/R and two-line system) for development of hybrids and seed production. Genetic purity test of commercial hybrids. Advances in hybrid seed production of maize, rice, sorghum, pearl millet, castor, sunflower, cotton pigeon pea, Brassica, etc. Quality seed production of vegetable crops in an open and protected environment. Alternative strategies for the development of the line and cultivars: haploid inducer, tissue culture techniques and biotechnological tools. IPR issues in commercial plant breeding: DUS testing and registration of varieties under PPV & FR Act. Variety testing, release and notification systems in India Principles and techniques of seed production, types of seeds, quality testing in self and cross-pollinated crops.

Practical 

  • Floral biology in self and cross-pollinated species, selfing and crossing techniques. Techniques of seed production in self and cross-pollinated crops using A/B/R and two line system. Learning techniques in hybrid seed production using male sterility in field crops. Understanding the difficulties in hybrid seed production, Tools and techniques for optimizing hybrid seed production. Concept of rouging in seed production plot. Concept of line its multiplication and purification in hybrid seed production. Role of pollinators in hybrid seed production. Hybrid seed production techniques in sorghum, pearl millet, maize, rice, rapeseed-mustard, sunflower, castor, pigeon pea, cotton and vegetable crops. Sampling and analytical procedures for purity testing and detection of spurious seed. Seed drying and storage structure in quality seed management. Screening techniques during seed processing viz., grading and packaging. Visit public and private seed production and processing plants.


B sc Ag 5th Semester Syllabus Landscaping Agriculture

Theory 

  • Importance and scope of landscaping. Principles of landscaping, garden styles and types, terrace gardening, vertical gardening, garden components, adornments, lawn making, rockery, water gardens, walk paths, bridges, other constructed features, etc. gardens for special purposes. Trees: selection, propagation, planting schemes, canopy management, shrubs and herbaceous perennials: selection, propagation, planting schemes, architecture. Climber and creepers: importance, selection, propagation, planting, Annuals: selection, propagation, planting scheme, Other garden plants: palms, ferns, grasses and cacti succulents. Pot plants: selection, arrangement, management. Bio-aesthetic planning: definition, need, planning; landscaping of urban and rural areas, Peri-urban landscaping, Landscaping of schools, public places like a bus station, railway stations, townships, river banks, hospitals, playgrounds, airports, industries, institutions. Bonsai: principles and management, lawn: establishment and maintenance. CAD application.

Practical 

  • Identification of trees, shrubs, annuals, and pot plants; Propagation of trees, shrubs and annuals, care and maintenance of plants, potting and repotting, identification of tools and implements used in landscape design, training and pruning of plants for special effects, lawn establishment and maintenance, layout of formal gardens, informal gardens, special type of gardens (sunken garden, terrace garden, rock garden) and designing of conservatory and lathe house. Use computer software, and visit important gardens/ parks/ institutes.


B.sc Ag 5th Sem Syllabus Food Safety And Standards

Theory 

  • Food Safety - Definition, Importance, Scope and Factors Affecting Food Safety. Hazards and Risks, Types of hazards - Biological, Chemical, Physical hazards. Management of hazards - Need. Control of parameters. Temperature control. Food storage. Product design. Hygiene and Sanitation in Food Service Establishments- Introduction. Sources of contamination and their control. Waste Disposal. Pest and Rodent Control. Personnel Hygiene. Food Safety Measures. Food Safety Management Tools- Basic Concepts. PRPs, GHPs, GMPs, SSOPs etc. HACCP. ISO series. TQM - concept and need for quality, components of TQM, Kaizen. Risk Analysis.
  • Accreditation and Auditing, Water Analysis, Surface Sanitation and Personal Hygiene. Food laws and Standards- Indian Food Regulatory Regime, FSSA. Global Scenario CAC. Other laws and standards related to food. Recent concerns- New and Emerging Pathogens, Packaging, Product labeling and Nutritional labeling. Genetically modified foods\ transgenics. Organic foods. Newer approaches to food safety. Recent Outbreaks. Indian and International Standards for food products.

Practical

  • Water quality analysis physicochemical and microbiological. Preparation of different types of media. Microbiological Examination of different food samples. Assessment of surface sanitation by swab/rinse method. Assessment of personal hygiene. Biochemical tests for identification of bacteria. Scheme for the detection of food-borne pathogens. Preparation of plans for Implementation of FSMS - HACCP, ISO: 22000.


B.sc Ag 5th Sem Biopesticides And Biofertilizers Syllabus

Theory 

  • History and concept of biopesticides. Importance, scope and potential of biopesticide. Definitions, concepts and classification of biopesticides viz. pathogen, botanical pesticides, and biorationales. Botanicals and their uses. Mass production technology of bio-pesticides. Virulence, pathogenicity and symptoms of entomopathogenic pathogens and nematodes. Methods of application of biopesticides. Methods of quality control and Techniques of biopesticides. Impediments and limitations in production and use of biopesticide. Biofertilizers - Introduction, status and scope. Structure and characteristic features of bacterial biofertilizers- Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium and Frankia; Cyanobacteria biofertilizers- Anabaena, Nostoc, Hapalosiphon and fungal biofertilizers- AM mycorrhiza and ectomycorrhiza. Nitrogen fixation -Free-living and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Mechanism of phosphate solubilization and phosphate mobilization, K solubilization. Production technology: Strain selection, sterilization, growth and fermentation, mass production of carrier-based and liquid biofertilizers. FCO specifications and quality control of biofertilizers. Application technology for seeds', seedlings, tubers, sets etc. Biofertilizers -Storage, shelf life, quality control and marketing. Factors influencing the efficacy of biofertilizers.

Practical 

  • Isolation and purification of important biopesticides: Trichoderma Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Metarhyzium, etc. and its production. Identification of important botanicals. Visit to biopesticide laboratory in the nearby area. Field visit to explore naturally infected cadavers. Identification of entomopathogenic entities in field condition. Quality control of biopesticides. Isolation and purification of Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Rhizobium, Psolubilizers and cyanobacteria. Mass multiplication and inoculum production of biofertilizers. Isolation of AM fungi -Wet sieving method and sucrose gradient method. Mass production of AM inoculants.

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