### M.sc 2nd Year Physics Important Questions 2023

In this post m.sc 2nd year physics important questions chapter wise is given for 2023.

You can prepare good msc physics notes for the exam by writing the answers to these questions in your notebook.

Read the related chapters before attempting this set of m.sc 2nd year physics important questions 2023.

By reading the chapter again and again you will get answers to many more questions.

If this question does not match your university syllabus.

Then you can see them as an M.sc second year physics model paper.

Try to write their answers in your own words.

So that you can remember them easily and also revise during the time of examination.

__FAQ__

Question - **After Msc physics what can I do?**

Answer - You can make your career in these fields. But you have a strong knowledge of your subject. So many candidates are working in a big company with a good salary after doing the M.sc. These job options are open for you after the Msc course - Laboratory technician, Scientist, Medical physicist or officer, Professor, Researcher, or Network administration work.

Question - **How to study physics?**

Answer - These are the basic points, which you have to follow to study physics. These are - (1) Review your textbook chapters ahead of class (2) Practice the question set on a daily basis of your textbook (3) Focus on the concept clearance of the topic (4) If facing difficulty understanding the subject, ask your professor, tutor, friends (5) Make sure to memorize the physics formula, definitions, and idea (6) Try to continue your daily studying uninterrupted.

#### M.sc 2nd Year Physics Important Questions

**Computational Mathematics Questions**

- State and prove Stirling's formula for interpolation.
- Explain Monte-Carlo Method. Describe various areas where this method is applied. Explain Monte-Carlo Simulation and Monte-Carlo Integration.
- What is the Euler-Maclaurin formula for numerical integration?
- Explain the Runge-Kutta method to solve the differential equation.
- What do you understand by eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a matrix?
- Explain the use of the 'Cubic Spline Method' in numerical differentiation with illustrative examples.
- Give the theory of the Crank-Nicolson Method to solve the parabolic partial differential equation. Explain it with a suitable solved example.
- Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the given matrix. Show that the n×n matrix may have n linearly independent eigenvectors.

**Programming With Fortran And C++ Questions**

- What are executable and non-executable statements and what is the difference between them?
- What is a Computer Programme? Explain the terms: Machine Language, Compiler, Interpreter, and Assembler. What is the difference between hardware and software?
- Write a Fortran program that counts the number of positive numbers and the number of negative numbers.
- Write a FUNCTION subprogram that calculates the sum of the elements in a linear array with N elements.
- Write a program segment or subroutine to plot a graph between the specified limit with its argument.
- Explain integer and real data types representation in the Fortran Language with examples.
- Write a SUBROUTINE subprogram that does not have any (a) argument (b) RETURN statement.
- What are special operators used in the C++ language to perform a particular type of operation? Discuss all such operators in detail.
- Discuss the characteristics of OPEN, REAL END FILE, and close FILE used in the file format of Fortran.
- Write a function in C++ to generate a Fibonacci series of n numbers, where n is defined by a program.
- Write a program in C++ to perform the following, (a) the Area of a triangle (b) the Area of a rectangle (c) the circumference of a circle.
- Summarize the syntactic rules of the following loop statements- (i) While loop (ii) DO-while loop
- What is a function? List out the advantages and disadvantages of using functions in C++.
- What is meant by conditional compilation?
- What is the relationship between a pointer and an array? How is a pointer variable declared in C++?
- What is a multidimensional array and how is it different from a one-dimensional array?

**Physics Of Nanomaterials Important Questions**

- What are Nanoparticles? What are quantum dots? Give short notes on their applications.
- Using the collision-time concept, derive an expression for the electrical conductivity of a free electron gas. Does this result explain the experimental value of the resistivity of a metal?
- What is a quantum wire? Discuss the optical properties of quantum wire. Describe various quantum wire devices.
- Explain the band formed in the hydrogen molecule. What do you understand by energy bands in Crystals?
- Discuss the motion of electrons in a two-dimensional potential well and obtain the expression for the density of states.
- Classify crystalline solids into metals, semiconductors, and insulators on the basis of band theory. Explain the concept of the effective mass of charge carriers.
- Write notes on, (i) Quantum Well (ii) Superlattice.
- Obtain the eigenvalues and normalized eigenfunctions of a particle in a one-dimensional infinite potential box of side 'a'.
- Enumerate the basic steps involved in the construction of an electron microscope. Give brief notes on Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).
- Discuss the structure and characteristics of different kinds of quantum dots.
- What is multiferroic material? Describe the application of such materials.
- Describe the citrate precursor technique for the preparation of nanoparticles.
- What is the difference between 'Bottom up' and 'bottom down' methods of producing nanoparticles? Describe, in detail, the Sol-Gel method of preparation of nanoparticles.
- What is the Raman effect? Discuss the variations in Raman Spectra of nanomaterials.
- Describe the Hartree-Fock Approximation of the coulomb interaction between 3D confined electrons. Mention the application of Hund's rule in quantum dots.
- Explain the phenomenon of photoluminescence, phosphorescence, and chemiluminescence.
- How do you account for the shift in the peaks of PL-Spectra?
- Write notes on- (a) Plasma Arcing (b) Hund's rule in the quantum dot.

**Science In Renewable Energy And Technology Important Questions**

- What are the environmental impacts of harnessing geothermal, wave, and tidal energy?
- What is meant by air mass and how is it related to the standardized solar spectrum? What are the major atmospheric effects limiting the performance of photovoltaic applications?
- What are the methods employed in harnessing tidal energy?
- Explain the 'Green House Effect' and the co-relation of the rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration with the rise in average temperature.
- Derive the expression for Radiant Power Density.
- State and explain drift velocity. Derive the expression for conductivity and mobility.
- Explain 'quantum efficiency' and 'spectral response'. How will you calculate quantum efficiency from the spectral response?
- Derive the expression for the total current in (a) Wide-Base Diode and (b) Narrow-Base Diode.
- Compare hydroelectric generation with other sources of energy and discuss its positive and negative aspects. What are its limitations?
- Explain the perspectives of hydrogen energy in the World. Give an account of the pilot programs. What are the safety risks involved with the applications of hydrogen fuel?
- What do you understand by the first, second, and third generation of solar cells? What efficiency they can achieve?
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of hydrogen energy applications?
- What is Geotherwial Power? Discuss its advantages and disadvantages.
- Explain series and shunt resistances and their effects on 'Fill Factor' (FF) in solar cells. Distinguish between characteristics and parasitic resistances.
- Give the methods of harnessing (i) Wave energy and (ii) Tidal energy.
- Explain surface texturing and light trapping mechanism for a Silicon Solar Cell. What is a Lambertian Rear Reflector?
- What do you understand by band gap? Describe the formation of intrinsic carriers and their concentration variation with temperature.
- Can solar energy be used for cooling? How?
- Derive Betz's law and show that the maximum efficiency of rotors can't exceed 60%. What are the factors that limit the use of wind energy?
- Write notes on the following- (a) Wave energy generation (b) Ideal solar cell.
- Explain the capacity factor of wind farms. How does it help in increasing the reliability of wind farms?

**Environmental Physics Questions**

- Discuss the equation of motion for fluid and hence obtain the Navier-Stokes equation for fluids.
- What do you mean by contact temperature? Obtain an expression for it.
- Enumerate the basic atmospheric forces to study laws of motion in the atmosphere. Explain what you mean by the 'Baroclinic Model' and 'Renold's Number' (Re).
- What are the elements of weather and climate? What is common between General Circulation Model (GCM) and Numerical Weather Production (NWP) model?
- What do you mean by 'End-of-Year Cost' and 'Rest Value'? What are 'building times' and 'breakeven points' with reference to conventional energy sources.
- What do you mean by renewable energy? Describe the various types of renewable energy. Point out the economic importance of renewable energy.
- Derive Fick's law and explain its analogy with the heat transfer equation.
- Why Biofuels are called renewable energy sources? Explain briefly, the four generations of Bifuesl.
- Explain Raman, Rayleigh, and Mie's scatterings. Distinguish between Raman and Mie scattering. Explain Resonance Raman scattering.
- What is LIDAR? Explain its principle, physical and technical aspects with applications.
- Discuss improvements in diffusion equations to predict the transport of pollutants with fair accuracy. What is Drupuit Approximation? Discuss.
- Discuss the diffusion of guest particles in a medium.
- What is atmospheric stratification? Explain its importance. What do you mean by 'The Froude Number'?
- Discuss the diffusion of guest particles in a medium.
- Discuss the working principle of the Gratzed Cell. Give the properties of these cells.
- Discuss the power of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. How will you optimize the reactor size based on fission?
- Explain Einstein's A and B coefficients of absorption stimulated emission and spontaneous emission. Hence deduce Lambert-Beer's Law.
- What is Urban Heat Island? Explain the causes of Heat Island.
- 'Bio-fuels are renewable energy sources', why? Explain, in brief, the four generations of biofuels.
- Explain the principle of solar collectors which absorb solar radiation. Find the expression for the net heat flux entering the collector.

**Photonics Questions **

- How plasma screen different from an LCD screen? What is the future of LCD screens?
- Describe the band gap and fill factor of a p-n cell. How does the fill factor depend on the normalized open circuit voltage?
- Describe intrinsic semiconductor laser and doped semiconductor laser. What is the limitation for these lasers to operate continuously?
- What do you mean by photonics? How is it different from electronics? Comment on the future of this branch of physics.
- Explain the difference between analog and digital communication. Why digital communication is more suitable for modern-day requirements?
- Describe an injection laser. What is a double heterojunction injection laser? Explain the term injection.
- Obtain a relation between divergence and Waist Rise of the beam for a Gaussian distribution of wave energy.
- What is the mode-locking operation in a laser? Prove that the output of a mode-locked laser is n times the power of the same laser with modes uncoupled. Describe a technique developed for achieving mode-locking. What is passive mode locking?
- Describe with a neat diagram the operation of the Ruby laser. Explain the origin of spiking in laser emission.
- What is LED? Describe its design and explain its working.
- What do you mean by beats? Explain the concept of beats from acoustic to optical region.
- Explain the difference between analog and digital communication. Why digital communication is more suitable for modern-day requirements?
- What do you mean by 'Core and Cladding'? Describe the structures of different types of optical fibers with ray paths.
- What is an optical fiber flow sensor? Describe the optical fiber gyroscope.
- Obtain expressions for the following terms related to an optical fiber- (i) Critical angle (ii) Numerical aperture (iii) Acceptance angle (iv) Relative refractive index difference.
- What do you mean by 'stimulated emission' and 'population inversion'? How is the population inversion accomplished in semiconductor and non-semiconductor lasers?
- Starting from Maxwell's field equations, derive the wave equations for E z and H z components for an e.m. wave traveling along the positive z-direction.
- Write notes on the following- (a) Ultrafast laser and its uses (b) Holography (c) Optical transmitters and receivers.

**Advanced Condensed Matter Physics Important Questions**

- Derive an expression for the electrical conductivity of metal on Drone Model. Explain the effect on conductivity if an alternatives electric field is applied to the system.
- Obtain dispersion relation for a one-dimensional crystal with two types of atoms and discuss the nature of optical and acoustic modes.
- State Gruneisen law. Derive the equation of state and greisen parameter for solids.
- Give an account of Ginzberg-Landau's theory of the phenomenology of the superconducting state. How do you get coherence light?
- Give a quantitative treatment of BCS ground state. Obtain an expression for the energy gap at 0K.
- Discuss the theory of the interaction of electrons with optical phonons in the case of the polar lattice.
- Derive Clausius-Mossotti's formula relating the dielectric constant and the polarisability for composite dielectric material.
- What are cooper pairs? Calculate the interaction energy of the electron pair.
- What do you understand by direct transition and indirect transition? Calculate the absorption coefficient in case of direct transition.
- Describe the inelastic scattering of neutrons. What are the two methods used for defining and measuring neutron energies?
- What is the skin effect? Distinguish between normal and anomalous skin effects. Give the mathematical theory of anomalous skin effect. How do you get information about the Fermi structure with the help of this effect?
- What is the Debye-Waller factor? What is its origin? Discuss the temperature dependence of the Bragg reflection.
- What are ionic crystals? Explain the formation of an ionic crystal and obtain, in short, an expression for its cohesive energy.
- What is the MÃ¶sbauer effect? Explain Doppler broadening through intensity-frequency graphs for gamma emission and absorption by identical nuclei.
- Discuss A. C. Josephson's effect.
- What is polariton? Obtain polariton dispersion relation. How does it stand with the experiment test?

**Advanced Electronics Questions**

- What is a multiplexer? Draw the logic circuit for a 4-to-1 multiplexer. Write the Boolean equation and describe the truth table.
- Define an oscillator. What is the principle of operation of an oscillator? How are oscillators classified?
- What is a level transistor circuit? Why it is used with the cascaded differential amplifier?
- What is a logarithmic amplifier? Show that in a logarithmic amplifier, the output voltage changes as the logarithmic of the input voltage.
- What is an op-amp? What are the characteristics of an ideal op-amp? Draw the block diagram of an op-amp?
- What is the difference between asynchronous and synchronous counters? What is the advantage of an asynchronous counter?
- What is a decoder? Describe seven segment displays for an LED circuit.
- What is an adder circuit? Explain the implementation of a half adder and a full adder circuit. Also, explain the difference between them.
- What is an encoder? Draw the logic circuit of an 8-time-to-3-time encoder. Discuss the 4-bit priority encoder.
- What is a multiplexer? Draw the logic circuit for a four-to-one multiplexer. Write the Boolean equation and describe the truth table.
- What is Read Only Memory (ROM)? Distinguish between PROM and EPROM. Give some of the important applications of ROM.
- What is a comparator? Explain the working of a comparator. What are its important characteristics?
- What is a flip-flop? Explain the functioning of the NOR and NAND latch.
- What are the five basic hardware blocks of a digital computer? Draw the block diagram of a digital computer and explain the working of each block.
- Explain the architecture of the 8086 microprocessor.

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