M.sc 2nd Year Botany Important Questions 2023

In this post m.sc 2nd year botany important questions are given for the 2023 session. 

You can prepare your m.sc botany notes by finding solutions to these questions.

For this, you can take the help of your university's recommended textbook. 

The questions given here have been prepared on the basis of the pattern of m.sc botany previous question papers. 

Some questions have been taken from the question bank. 

These questions have been asked many times in msc botany question paper, and these are also possible questions for the upcoming exam. 

That's why you take them seriously. 

Write these questions in your notebook. 

Then read the lesson from the textbook, and try to answer in your own words. 

In this way, you will be able to remember the answer easily and in less time. 

A notebook prepared with these questions and answers can be used for m.sc botany entrance exam study material. 

Paper-wise questions have been set in this botany question paper.


Question - Is MSc botany difficult?

Answer - This subject is not hard. If your concept is clear, and you are mentally prepared that you have to make your career in the field related to this subject. Your base should be strong, which means you study this subject with interest even in B.Sc.

M.sc 2nd Year Botany Questions Paper

Plant Physiology And Biochemistry Important Questions

  • What is photophosphorylation? Describe briefly Cyclic and Non-Cyclic Photophosphorylation.
  • Describe the mode of action and role of Gibberellin.
  • Describe the mechanism of closing and opening of stomata.
  • Give an account of the Physiology of flowering.
  • Give an illustrated account of the light reaction of Photosynthesis.
  • Write short notes on the following- (a) Phototropism (b) Active transport (c) Temperature stress in plants (d) CAM
  • What is Vernalization? Describe its mechanism.
  • Write short notes on the following- (a) Nastic movements (b) Different types of growth hormones (c) Cytokinin and its role (d) Electron Transport System
  • Write briefly about Biochemical Nitrogen fixation.
  • Describe the steps involved in the formation of Pyruric acid from Glucose.
  • What are enzymes? Discuss the properties of enzymes.
  • Describe the mechanism of action of enzymes.
  • What is Electron Transport Chain? How ATP is synthesized?
  • Describe different types of Vitamins. How are the synthesized (anyone)
  • What do you mean by biological nitrogen fixation? Give an account of the process.
  • Define biomolecules and justify that carbohydrates are biomolecules.
  • Write short notes on the following- (a) Nitrogen-containing Secondary metabolites (b) Co-enzymes (d) Exothermic and Endothermic reactions.
  • What are Secondary metabolites? Describe the different roles played by these metabolites.
  • Write short notes on the following- (a) Entropy (b) Nitrification (c) Transamination (d) Chemical Structure of Chlorophyll
  • Write short notes on the following- (a) Structure of DNA (b) Structure of RNA (c) Kerb's cycle (d) EMP pathway.

Cytogenetics In Crop Improvement Important Questions

  • Describe the molecular mechanism of Mutation. Explain with suitable examples.
  • Define crossing over. Describe the mechanism and types of crossing over.
  • What is the interaction of Gene?
  • How Mendelian ratio of the 9:3:3:1 ratio stands modified due to the interaction of two genes? Describe one suitable example.
  • Describe different types of Chromosomal aberration. What is its significance?
  • What is genetic engineering? Describe various tools employed in genetic engineering. Also mention their significance.
  • Describe the different molecular mechanisms of mutation. Explain with examples.
  • What is Polyploidy? Describe different types of Polyploidy and also mention their role in crop improvements.
  • Give an account of the structure and significance of the B-Chromosome.
  • Write short notes on the following- (a) Lamp brush chromosome (b) Sex linkage in Drosophila (c) Polytene chromosome (d) Nucleosome
  • Define monosomy. Describe a human genetic disorder arising from monosomy.
  • Explain the regulation of genes in Prokaryotes.
  • How PCR technique can be utilized to amplify DNA segments.
  • Write short notes on the following- (a) PCR technique to amplify DNA (b) Bacteriophage as vectors (c) Linkage (d) Co-dominance.
  • Explain any two sex-linked characters with suitable examples.
  • Write short notes on the following- (a) DNA fingerprinting (b) Plasmid as Vector (c) Bacteriophage as vector (d) Idiogram
  • What do you mean by inversion? Explain pericentric and paracentric inversion.

Molecular Biology Important Questions

  • What are the general properties of Genetic Code? Explain the wobble hypothesis.
  • Explain the Operon concept of gene regulation in Prokaryotes.
  • Describe steps involved in the elongation of a polypeptide during translation in Prokaryotes.
  • Describe Meselson and Stahl's experiment to prove that replication of DNA is semiconservative.
  • Describe different kinds of RNA and also mention their specific role.
  • What is Genetic Code? Describe essential properties of Genetic code.
  • Explain one gene one enzyme hypothesis. How it stands modified.
  • Describe the concept of Phototrophs and Auxotrophs. How are they important in Genetic research?
  • How does DNA thread gets folded to form Nucleosome? What is the significance of Nucleosomes in the packaging of DNA?
  • Describe the process of Transcription and Translation in Prokaryotes.
  • Write short notes on the following- (a) Pseudo genes (b) Chargaff's rule of DNA equivalence (c) Spliceosome (d) Exons and Introns (e) Nitrogenous base (f) Termination Codon (g) Wobble hypothesis (h) Chargaff rule (i) Splicing (j) Initiation factor in Eukaryote (k) Transposon (l) Types of DNA
  • Write short notes on the following- (a) Linker DNA (b) Northern blotting (c) Southern blotting (d) Western blotting 
  • Explain briefly the "One Gene One Enzyme" hypothesis. How it stands modified.
  • What are transposons? Why are they important in recombinant DNA research?
  • What is Transformation? Describe its mechanism in Prokaryotes.
  • Explain the operon concept of gene regulation in Prokaryotes.
  • Differentiate between Polycistronic and Monocistronic genes.

Environmental Biology Questions

  • Explain the flow of energy in an ecosystem. What is its significance?
  • What do you understand by the term pollution? Give an account of water pollution. Mention its remedy.
  • What do you mean by the Green House effect? How it can lead to Global Warming.
  • What do you understand by the term productivity in an ecosystem? Describe various types of productivity of the ecosystem.
  • Give an account of the Forest ecosystem.
  • What do you understand by the term sustainable development? Discuss various strategies formulated for sustainable development.
  • Suggest ways for the conservation of Biodiversity.
  • What are the steps taken at the Global level to Conserve biodiversity? Give an account.
  • Explain how different human activities are the major threat to biodiversity.
  • What do you understand by the term biogeochemical cycle? Give an account of the Phosphorus cycle.
  • What is Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)? Discuss its importance in relation to the development of a Country.
  • Write short notes on the following- (a) Eutrophication (b) Red data book and its significance (c) World center of Primary and Secondary diversity (d) Hot Spots and their importance
  • What do you mean by Red data categories? What is its importance?
  • Write short notes on the following- (a) Food web (b) Radioactive Pollution (c) Threatened categories of Plants (d) Endemism.
  • Describe the vegetational belt of India.
  • Write short notes on the following- (a) Ozone depletion and its significance (b) Sources of air pollution and its type (c) Interaction among the population
  • Acquaint natural disasters and write how to mitigate their hazards?

Plant Resource Utilization And Conservation Questions

  • Describe the method of Protoplast isolation and culture.
  • Write the significance of the Biosphere Reserve or National Park. Enlist a few of them found in India.
  • What are the implications of the Green Revolution? Highlight its negative implication.
  • Write briefly the importance of in-situ and ex-situ conservation.
  • Describe the different reasons for the depletion of Biodiversity. Describe measures to overcome this problem.
  • Describe steps involved in the Tissue culture of Plants.
  • Write briefly the role of Natural parks in situ conservation.
  • Describe methods adopted in the fusion of protoplast. How somatic hybrids can be produced using the method?
  • What are Fibres? Describe different types of fibers of commercial use.
  • Describe the types of mangroves and their distribution in India.
  • What are the principles and strategies of ex-situ conservation?
  • Write short notes on the following- (a) DBT (b) ICAR (c) CSIR
  • Write the common name, Botanical name of three kinds of cereal, pulses, and oil-yielding plants.
  • Describe the methods of Germplasm conservation.
  • What do you mean by the term Green Revolution? Describe strategies adopted in Green Revolution.
  • Write short notes on the following- (a) the Importance of Bio-reserve in conservation (b) Seed Bank (c) Botanical names of four medicinal plants (d) Fiber yielding plants (e) Oil yielding plants (f) Botanical gardens in India
  • Write short notes on the following- (a) Coral reefs and their importance (b) the Importance of ICAR in Research (c) Vivipary (d) the Need for wildlife protection
  • Write short notes on the following- (a) Wetlands of Bihar (b) Manufacture of paper from pulp (c) Five timber-yielding plants. 

Ethnobotany Exam Questions

  • Give a brief account of the future strategy of Ethnobotany.
  • Explain ethnomedicine as a discipline of Botany. Describe the importance of studying this.
  • What do you mean by aromatic plants? Write the botanical name, family, and importance of any five aromatic plants.
  • Give a brief account of any four of the drug Yielding plants. Also, mention the importance of studying this.
  • Write short notes on the following- (a) CITES (b) IUCN (c) Seed gene Bank (d) Cryopreservation
  • Describe various methods of ex-situ conservation.
  • Give a brief account of any four of the drug-yielding plants. Also mention their use in the Pharmaceutical industry.
  • Give a brief account of the future strategy of ethnobotany.
  • Describe common spices and condiments found in India. Mention their importance.
  • Describe the method of storage of herbal drugs.
  • What is germplasm? How can it be conserved?
  • Write short notes on the following- (a) Drug therapy (b) Seed gene bank (c) IUCN (d) CITES
  • Name the original homeland of some important crops. Mention Vavilov's contribution to the origin & cultivation of plants.
  • Write short notes on the following- (a) Sarpgandha (b) Ashwagandha (c) Aloe vera (d) Tulsi
  • Describe common spices and condiments and their importance.
  • Name some plants used by ethnic people for (a) Making musical instruments (b) Making agricultural implements (c) Plants used for religious purposes.
  • Write short notes on the following- (a) Cryo preservation (b) Vitamin-C (c) Lipids
  • Write an essay on centers of Ethnobotany in India.
  • Describe any five fiber-yielding plants with their botanical names and families.

Aerobiology Important Questions

  • What is an allergy? Describe various types of allergies and methods involved.
  • Give an account of the Source of allergy and its various response.
  • Describe post-fertilization change leading to the formation of Ascospore in Fungi.
  • Compare the ultrastructure of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells.
  • Describe aerobiology in relation to Plant Pathology.
  • Explain the various methods of the release of a fungal spore.
  • Write an essay on aeromycoflora.
  • Write short notes on- (a) Forecasting in relation to Aerobiology (b) Viable and non-viable atmospheric air-borne microbes.
  • What are the different types of sampling techniques? Explain it in detail.
  • Write short notes on the following- (a) Various symptoms of Allergy (b) Morphology of pollen (c) Bacteria (d) Nematodes
  • Do you agree with the statement that Aerobiology is the discipline of Biology relevant to human and plant health?
  • What do you mean by forecasting in aerobiology? How one can predict the onset of disease on the basis of forecasting.
  • Describe the development of Male gametophytes in angiosperms.
  • Write short notes on the following- (a) Air pollutants (b) Immunity (c) Soil pollutants (d) Air Sampling methodologies (e) Food allergies (f) Airborne allergy diseases (g) Pollen grains as allergens
  • Explain the structure and morphology of fungal spores.
  • Explain the sampling technique in detail.
  • Write the criteria for grouping organisms into five kingdoms. describe the main characters of each kingdom with examples.

Biotechnology And Bioinformatics Questions

  • Describe the role of recombinant DNA in Agriculture.
  • What do you mean by ex-plant? How callus formation is induced?
  • What is Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)? Describe its application.
  • What are secondary metabolites? Describe how and when secondary metabolites are produced by plants?
  • What are T and B Lymphocytes? Describe their role in immunity.
  • Name five different types of enzymes used in recombinant DNA research. Specifically mention their role.
  • Describe the technique involved in the production of Somatic hybrids.
  • What do you mean by PCR? How his technique is used to amplify DNA.
  • Describe the role of vectors in recombinant DNA technology.
  • Describe the process involved in the production of somatic hybrids.
  • Give an account of DNA fingerprinting.
  • What is micropropagation? Describe this technique in a step-wise manner.
  • Give an account of the role of cryopreservation in the conservation of germplasm.
  • Give an account of the technique and application of Microarray technology.
  • Write short notes on the following- (a) DNA chips (b) NCBI (c) Byte (d) in situ conservation
  • Why Agrobacterium is described as a natural genetic Engineer? Explain.
  • Fermentation is the base of modern Biotechnology, Discuss the statement.
  • Describe the Technique of Southern blotting.
  • Write briefly- (a) Protoplast isolation (b) Agrobacterium plasmid
  • Write short notes on the following- (a) Rh factor (b) Proteomics (c) Antigens (d) Cybrid
  • Describe the technique of Protoplast isolation. How it can be regenerated?

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